How not to interview a customer/user!

InterviewingtechniquesOver the years I have had the opportunity to observe a lot of user interviews. Interviewing users is not easy and when done correctly it can provide the impetus to inform your ensuing actions. On the other hand a poor interview can leave me cringing! The following is a list of interview behaviors that make me cringe! I will start out with the most obvious of all but no harm repeating it… don’t lead the user!

Don’t ask a question and then immediately answer it. You are leading the interviewee. If they can’t answer then maybe use an example as a way to get them thinking. Don’t answer it with a or b answer as they will choose one just to please you. The answer becomes your answer. Don’t give away the answer you are looking for!

Don’t suggest answers if you are not sure what they just said. Just ask them to clarify or expand.

Don’t ask loaded questions such as “How difficult is it to move from Location A to Location B?” You are essentially telling the interviewee that it is difficult. The interviewee sees it as loaded. You are presupposing that he also thinks it is difficult?

If the user asks you a question… don’t try and answer
Ask her what she things the thing (link, button, tool) is for. What does she think it is for or should be?

Your silence may often prompt a user to offer a more detailed answer. However, your pregnant pause, followed by a slow “uh-huh” can also sound condescending… as if you can’t believe the user answered that way!

Don’t ask more than one question at a time.

Don’t ask two very different questions in the same sentence!

When a user expresses an opinion, don’t just accept it as is. Probe into the underlying attitudes. Ask what else?

If a user says something is important, helpful, preferable, thrilling, boring, scary, unfriendly, hard to use, etc then find out why. Try and understand the underlying motivation attitude that drives the behavior. Don’t just accept it at face value.

If you ask an a/b type question and the user answers “a” don’t just accept that as gospel. The value is in understanding why they chose “a”?

Don’t treat the user as if she is a designer!

Get the gist!? Feel free to suggest other annoying interview behaviors you have experienced!

The switch! How can customers better target their companies?!

I remember a 2004 Fast Company article (“Every Move You Make,” by Linda Tischler) that discussed how marketing agencies were employing anthropologists and ethnographers to better understand what consumers do, rather than what they say they do. The story was told through the experience of Ogilvy & Mather’s ethnography group and their lead corporate ethnographer as the team investigated the behaviors of people drinking in bars. Though the term wasn’t new to me at the time, and certainly will not be new to many people, it was the first time I really “heard” the words corporate ethnography. It struck me that it sounded more like the conducting of ethnography of corporations and not what it was, the corporate-led research by a company of its customers…which led me to want to turn corporate ethnography on its head.

What if corporate ethnography was actually research conducted by customers into the behaviors of companies in order to better understand what businesses deliver, rather than what they say they’re delivering? What if the purpose was to enable customers to address the unmet goals and needs of company stakeholders? This research could channel a business’s behavior toward a positive customer experience, one that would be determined by the customer’s influence on the company rather than the company’s influence on the customer.

There are already signs of a change toward more customer-influenced design. Social media has enabled customers to take a more active role in brand dialogue, changing what was previously a one-way conversation from brand to consumer (epitomized by the 30-second TV spot) into a consumer-to-consumer brand dialogue (manifested in the sharing of thoughts, images, advice, feedback and experiences by one consumer to others). The content of the conversations and the overall sentiment being expressed are already drivers for behavioral change within companies: If I check into a major brand hotel in a major metropolis and tweet that I am unhappy with my room, hotel management might quickly respond to ensure my stay is not a disappointment. (This is only a singular behavior change, not a company wide one…but it’s a start.)

In addition, customers are increasingly involved in the creation of the very products and services they may be in the market to buy. Brands such as Starbuck’s (My Starbuck’s Idea), adidas (online custom shoe design tool), Threadless (community-driven product selection), and BMW (Co-Creation Lab) are just some of the companies embracing open innovation. Co-design/co-creation and participatory design are early indicators of customers engaging as partners in a process; it gets them involved as equals in determining their marketplace destiny. While some of these open innovation scenarios are customer-driven, most are still initiated at the invitation of the company. Customers are not walking in and leading the charge—yet.

We need to create a new field of customer ethnography (or “corporate relationship management”) that will be the proactive study and gathering of data and insights on corporate culture by networked consumers. This will allow customers to better understand what motivates their companies and what behaviors influence their companies’ products and services, and will likely result in bringing new customer-influenced products and services to market.

Can we imagine a day when customers have the tools to proactively influence the behavior of company stakeholders? A day when the conversation is two-way, allowing consumers to understand and influence the behaviors of companies? Is there a digital innovation in the future that puts customers behind the wheel in leading the design and marketing of sustainable, meaningful, useful, useable products, services and information? Will current social media outlets be transformed into the future tools of customer-driven relationship management?

Is it already here!?

I’m open to hearing your ideas.